Air Quality Notification of Permit Applications

​We ensure that all applicants for new air permits and amendments to permits adhere to the requirements of the Public Notification Regulation, B.C. Reg. 202/94. 

This regulation outlines:

  • minimum requirements for posting, publishing and other forms of notification
  • the duties of the applicant and the District Director
  • the rights of a concerned person who may be adversely affected by the granting of a permit
  • the discretionary authority of the District Director

List of permit applications in progress

The following is a list of applications for new permits or permit amendments that are considered final and for which we are still accepting comments.  For high-profile applications we are trialing an on-line process for providing information to and receiving comments from the public.




GP0|#f9a18382-8630-4e87-beb4-80bd48e8e399;L0|#0f9a18382-8630-4e87-beb4-80bd48e8e399|ALS Canada Ltd;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#f9a18382-8630-4e87-beb4-80bd48e8e399;L0|#0f9a18382-8630-4e87-beb4-80bd48e8e399|ALS Canada Ltd;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA1057GP0|#5c705498-b241-45eb-a5f9-683b15290fa4;L0|#05c705498-b241-45eb-a5f9-683b15290fa4|North Vancouver District;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3Assaying and analytical testing services for mining and mineral explorationPermitNewApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClass85499DD94A404512AC16F67A364B67D6"><p>​The purpose of this application is to request authorization to discharge air contaminants from ALS Canada Ltd. a Laboratory Analysis facility located at 2103 Dollarton Hwy, North Vancouver, BC V7H 0A7.<br><br>ALS Canada Ltd. is required by Metro Vancouver to have an air emissions permit in place. The permit will authorize our discharge of air emissions from various sources including exhaust vents from sample prep lab, minerals lab, Fire Assay lab, and combustion emissions from natural gas boilers.<br><br>Building 1: Prep Lab – potential emission is particulate matter.<br>Building 2: Minerals Lab – potential emissions are Hydrochloric Acid, Nitric Acid, Hydrofluoric Acid, Perchloric Acid and Sulphuric Acid.</p><p>Building 3: Fire Assay Lab – potential emission is lead.</p></div>
GP0|#4f19def3-18d0-4559-99fd-62bc49ceb9c8;L0|#04f19def3-18d0-4559-99fd-62bc49ceb9c8|All Roads Construction Ltd;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#4f19def3-18d0-4559-99fd-62bc49ceb9c8;L0|#04f19def3-18d0-4559-99fd-62bc49ceb9c8|All Roads Construction Ltd;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA1145GP0|#6aa7e3db-a1ac-40ab-82b9-a4e2ede17021;L0|#06aa7e3db-a1ac-40ab-82b9-a4e2ede17021|Coquitlam;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3a hot mix asphalt plantPermitNewApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClassF8B1ECCCA947482EBE9708389421CB3C"><p> The purpose of this application is to request authorization to discharge air contaminants from a hot mix asphalt (HMA) facility located at 2320 Rogers Avenue, Coquitlam, BC V3K 5X7. <br><br> This HMA facility will produce asphalt for use in road construction and repair. Asphalt will be produced using both the hot and warm mix methodologies using inputs of aggregates, reclaimed asphalt pavement, and asphalt cement (AC). This facility will utilize best available control technologies to control and mitigate any possible emissions. Control technologies that will be used to manage any possible emissions include the following: <br><br> • Baghouse filtration system to control emissions from the process; <br><br> • Blue smoke capture system to control volatile organic compounds from the process; <br><br> • Vapour condensers to capture volatile organic compounds from the AC tanks; <br><br> • Shelters and enclosures for the aggregate stockpiles to contain possible emissions; <br><br> • Wet suppression techniques to manage emissions from material handling. </p></div>, All Roads Website
GP0|#1c4a8582-2426-4aea-a335-8210c33cb06c;L0|#01c4a8582-2426-4aea-a335-8210c33cb06c|BC Tweed Joint Venture Inc;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#1c4a8582-2426-4aea-a335-8210c33cb06c;L0|#01c4a8582-2426-4aea-a335-8210c33cb06c|BC Tweed Joint Venture Inc;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVU1106GP0|#31a206cb-92b0-4223-8305-c75b779a52a8;L0|#031a206cb-92b0-4223-8305-c75b779a52a8|Delta;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3a Combined Heat and Power Operation at an Agricultural Cannabis Greenhouse and Processing FacilityApprovalNewApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClassE501AC0C0C704340BE72BD26B45210BD"><div><p>​This approval application addresses installation of the five 2 MW and three 1.5 MW cogeneration natural gas engine systems with appropriate control works at BC Tweed. The cogeneration system will operate for the purpose of supplying heat and electricity to BC Tweed’s Delta greenhouse. The system will be equipped with a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system to reduce the discharge of air contaminants into the surrounding environment. </p></div></div>
GP0|#1c4a8582-2426-4aea-a335-8210c33cb06c;L0|#01c4a8582-2426-4aea-a335-8210c33cb06c|BC Tweed Joint Venture Inc;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#1c4a8582-2426-4aea-a335-8210c33cb06c;L0|#01c4a8582-2426-4aea-a335-8210c33cb06c|BC Tweed Joint Venture Inc;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVU1099GP0|#659202fc-2cd9-4cb0-86cc-0c062ff3bff5;L0|#0659202fc-2cd9-4cb0-86cc-0c062ff3bff5|Langley Township;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3a Combined Heat and Power Operation at an Agricultural Cannabis Greenhouse and Processing FacilityApprovalNewApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClass469D8EF92B0C45DA9113A75C88409EA4"><div><p>​The purpose of this application is to request authorization to discharge air contaminants from four natural gas generators at a greenhouse facility located at 349 264 Street, Aldergrove, BC V4W 2K1. This approval application addresses installation of the four cogeneration natural gas engine systems with appropriate control works at BC Tweed. The cogeneration system will operate for the purpose of supplying heat and electricity to BC Tweed’s Aldergrove greenhouse. The system will be equipped with a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system to reduce the discharge of air contaminants into the surrounding environment.</p></div></div>
GP0|#985ad211-7bd8-4cb5-a1aa-c4f330385831;L0|#0985ad211-7bd8-4cb5-a1aa-c4f330385831|CIPA Lumber Co Ltd;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#985ad211-7bd8-4cb5-a1aa-c4f330385831;L0|#0985ad211-7bd8-4cb5-a1aa-c4f330385831|CIPA Lumber Co Ltd;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA0051GP0|#31a206cb-92b0-4223-8305-c75b779a52a8;L0|#031a206cb-92b0-4223-8305-c75b779a52a8|Delta;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3a softwood veneer manufacturing and drying plantPermitAmendmentApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClassFEA773EE7C2C44A99D9A2303A2A2E6BB"><p>​The purpose of this application is to request authorization to discharge air contaminants from a new veneer dryer and regenerative thermal oxidizer at their manufacturing and drying plant located at 797 Carlisle Road, Delta, BC.<br></p><p>Discharge flow from the new #5 dryer will be controlled by the current Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) system. Because of the capacity of the WESP system, the discharge flow from #4 dryer will be controlled by a new Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer (RTO) system, other than the discharge from #4 dryer outfeed seal section. <br><br>Current emission source 15 (WESP) will be modified based on the above changes (reduce total natural gas usage and discharge flow for the changeover).<br><br>Emission source 18 (RTO) will be added to control the emissions from #4 dryer, other than its outfeed seal section.<br></p><p>#2 re-dryer will be decommissioned and deleted from emission source 15.<br><br>In an emergency, the new #5 dryer will discharge to emission source 16 (veneer dryers emergency abort gates).</p></div>
GP0|#4acf8e12-ea3c-43c7-bb91-717acd4ecad1;L0|#04acf8e12-ea3c-43c7-bb91-717acd4ecad1|Coast Spas Manufacturing Inc;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#4acf8e12-ea3c-43c7-bb91-717acd4ecad1;L0|#04acf8e12-ea3c-43c7-bb91-717acd4ecad1|Coast Spas Manufacturing Inc;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA1120GP0|#659202fc-2cd9-4cb0-86cc-0c062ff3bff5;L0|#0659202fc-2cd9-4cb0-86cc-0c062ff3bff5|Langley Township;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3a polyester resin and acrylic hot tub manufacturing facilityPermitNewApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClass908A5CE4A07D4447AF4749DABB7D4124"><p>The purpose of this application is to request authorization to discharge air contaminants from Coast Spas Manufacturing Inc. (CSMI), an existing hot tub manufacturing facility located at 6315 202 Street, Langley, BC V2Y 1N1.</p><p>CSMI operates a manufacturing facility that assembles hot tubs and spas using continuous cast acrylic sheet material to form a shell, using a vacuum forming process, to which a fiberglass reinforced polymer is added.</p></div>,
GP0|#85d5071a-e987-4c05-9c69-b9aa3765c904;L0|#085d5071a-e987-4c05-9c69-b9aa3765c904|Fibreco Export Inc;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#85d5071a-e987-4c05-9c69-b9aa3765c904;L0|#085d5071a-e987-4c05-9c69-b9aa3765c904|Fibreco Export Inc;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA0248GP0|#5c705498-b241-45eb-a5f9-683b15290fa4;L0|#05c705498-b241-45eb-a5f9-683b15290fa4|North Vancouver District;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3a Wood Pellet Storage and Wood Pellet and Canola Meal Pellet Shipping FacilityPermitAmendmentApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClass578510BD0C1F41A99AD5938D824B3FA0"><p> The purpose of this application is to request an amendment of air quality management permit GVA0248 to reflect air emission sources and releases as per the proposed enhancement of the facility to receive, handle, store and ship grain products from the Terminal. The enhancement of the Terminal will allow for upgrades to dust management that include: </p><p> • A new shiploader that includes the Buhler RGLZ Dust Suppressing Telescopic Spout that will provide best available control technology for the shipment of grain and wood pellets at the Terminal; <br><br> • A new gravity hopper for dust control at the rail car dumper; <br><br> • A new enclosure at the rail car dumper equipped with best available dust control <br><br> and collection technology; <br><br> • Installation of a covered and enclosed conveying system for grain handling with best <br><br> available dust control technology at conveyor transfer points; <br><br> • Construction of new grain storage silos; <br><br> • Eliminating the shipping and receiving of wood chips at the Terminal; <br><br> • Eliminating the open wood chip storage stockpiles. <br><br> The technology selections for the rail car dumper, conveyance system and shiploader represent the best available control technology. The implementation of these technologies will modernize dust control at the Terminal and represent a significant upgrade over current operations. <br><br> In addition to the dust control upgrades, the project will also: <br><br> • Provide 120 long term, high paying jobs (full time equivalent); <br><br> • Provide in excess of 180,000 manhours of construction jobs; <br><br> • Improve worker safety at the Terminal; <br><br> • Generate more than $15 million in direct local economic activity; <br><br> • Improve noise control. </p></div>,
GP0|#a1294cc6-5f5c-4263-bd88-0346d309946d;L0|#0a1294cc6-5f5c-4263-bd88-0346d309946d|Fraser Surrey Docks LP;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#a1294cc6-5f5c-4263-bd88-0346d309946d;L0|#0a1294cc6-5f5c-4263-bd88-0346d309946d|Fraser Surrey Docks LP;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA1068GP0|#3aaf5dc1-45ba-4cce-98d9-c4fc4448f597;L0|#03aaf5dc1-45ba-4cce-98d9-c4fc4448f597|Surrey;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3Direct to Barge Coal Loading FacilityPermitNewNotification Active<div class="ExternalClassA015E740F5C7454BABB5E3F2EB33310E"> <font style="font-size:13px;"><p>The purpose of this application is to request authorization to discharge air contaminants from Fraser Surrey Docks’ existing agricultural ship loading facility located at 11060 Elevator Road, Surrey, BC V3V 2R7. </p> <p>Fraser Surrey Docks’ Agricultural facility handles a variety of agricultural products in bulk including Canola Meal Pellets, Canola Meal, Wheat, Flaxseed, Oats, Alfalfa, Lentils, Peas, Dried Distillers Grain, Malt Barley, Canola Seed, and Soybeans. The facility unloads dry goods via a railcar belly dump (with air vents to minimize dust) to a weighing system loading deep-sea vessels via a conveyance system inclusive of bag filters. </p></font></div>,
GP0|#901030b5-3564-4da8-89a4-ab577c93012d;L0|#0901030b5-3564-4da8-89a4-ab577c93012d|Glenwood Valley Farms Ltd;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#901030b5-3564-4da8-89a4-ab577c93012d;L0|#0901030b5-3564-4da8-89a4-ab577c93012d|Glenwood Valley Farms Ltd;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA1072GP0|#6bc03fc5-00e6-4aad-916c-19a8fd2947c0;L0|#06bc03fc5-00e6-4aad-916c-19a8fd2947c0|Langley;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3vegetable greenhouse operationPermitNewApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClassD4353D1C1515406DB716780B3C6AC9A6"><div><div><p>Glenwood Valley Farms Ltd. is seeking authorization to discharge air contaminants from five natural gas fired reciprocating internal combustion (piston) engines that are used to provide heat, electrical energy for on-site lighting, and a future source of carbon dioxide (CO2) rich gas to a vegetable greenhouse facility. Typical combustion products from natural gas fueled engines include nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbons and particulate matter. The engine exhaust gases will be controlled by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) units which is considered as a best available control technology for nitrogen oxides. Unreacted ammonia, or ammonia slip, can be a byproduct of the SCR emission control system. </p></div></div></div>
GP0|#3ba1ad3c-8382-4b10-886f-555a209f590f;L0|#03ba1ad3c-8382-4b10-886f-555a209f590f|Layfield Canada Ltd;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#3ba1ad3c-8382-4b10-886f-555a209f590f;L0|#03ba1ad3c-8382-4b10-886f-555a209f590f|Layfield Canada Ltd;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA1070GP0|#3061c011-cc7e-47aa-8d5a-2d93795f2d7e;L0|#03061c011-cc7e-47aa-8d5a-2d93795f2d7e|Richmond;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3plastic film manufacturing and convertingPermitNewNotification Active<div class="ExternalClassC2E20844914E423FAA197CDAE988D689"> <font style="font-size:13px;"><p>Layfield Canada Ltd. has applied to request authorization to discharge air contaminants from an existing plastic film manufacturing and converting facility located at 11120 Silversmith Place, Richmond BC V7A 5E4. Layfield has been at this current location for 30 years. </p> <p>Layfield Canada Ltd. is involved in the manufacturing of plastic for the food, medical, nutraceutical, flood protection, home construction, biodigester, and environmental containment industries. The purpose of this application is to request authorization to discharge air contaminants from 15 emission sources including: 3 printing press dryers, 2 smaller printers, 7 extrusion/printing line treaters, 1 parts washer for press, 1 ink storage room, and 1 hot oil boiler. </p></font></div>,
GP0|#872c7714-d360-4074-a740-0504e5edd059;L0|#0872c7714-d360-4074-a740-0504e5edd059|Polynova Industries Inc;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#872c7714-d360-4074-a740-0504e5edd059;L0|#0872c7714-d360-4074-a740-0504e5edd059|Polynova Industries Inc;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA1069GP0|#3061c011-cc7e-47aa-8d5a-2d93795f2d7e;L0|#03061c011-cc7e-47aa-8d5a-2d93795f2d7e|Richmond;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3Plastic bag and food packaging manufacturing facilityPermitNewApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClassEF4670BB646944A499D8CEBF5045C9AA"><p>​Polynova is involved in the manufacturing of plastic bags for food packaging and retail shopping. The have been operating at this location since 1994.  The purpose of this application is to request authorization to discharge air contaminants from 6 sources including:  Printing Press Dryer (I) Exhaust (C-1) Printing Press Dryer (II) Exhaust (C-2) Roto Grevure Press Dryer III Exhaust (C-3) Film Extrusion Exhaust.</p></div>
GP0|#e09ad7b9-fc39-4b75-8bd8-1745401e105e;L0|#0e09ad7b9-fc39-4b75-8bd8-1745401e105e|Richardson International Limited;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#e09ad7b9-fc39-4b75-8bd8-1745401e105e;L0|#0e09ad7b9-fc39-4b75-8bd8-1745401e105e|Richardson International Limited;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA0617GP0|#fd59b7d7-2f7d-471f-b458-37ee7d047c95;L0|#0fd59b7d7-2f7d-471f-b458-37ee7d047c95|North Vancouver City;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3Grain TerminalPermitAmendmentApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClassCA6B1C75A67F4936BCBA8B05F6A600C5"><div> <font style="font-family:"segoe ui","segoe",tahoma,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;"><p>The purpose of this application is to amend the existing air quality permit GVA0617 to remove the requirement to commission an Air Dispersion Model from the Information Reporting Requirements. </p> <p>The applicant’s rationale for this request is based on the following justification: </p><ul><span style="font-family:"segoe ui","segoe",tahoma,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;"><li><p>An Air Dispersion Model was not identified as a required study / assessment to be supplied by Richardson in 2015; </p></li><li><p>The requirement for an Air Dispersion Model to be included with the Application, and / or set as a condition to maintain the existing Permit, was not identified by any stakeholders; and </p></li><li><p>The Air Dispersion Model required will not be reflective of emissions or potential emissions from the facility. </p></li></span></ul><p>Based on the aforementioned rationale, there was no basis for the requirement of the Air Dispersion Model under the Permit, and the terms on which it is being requested will render it of no value to the general public, stakeholders and / or Richardson’s ongoing operations under the terms of the current Air Quality Management Permit. </p></font></div></div>
GP0|#edcdf166-e8de-404a-8b27-16b2f769d7ed;L0|#0edcdf166-e8de-404a-8b27-16b2f769d7ed|Swiss Water Decaffeniated Coffee Company Ltd;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#edcdf166-e8de-404a-8b27-16b2f769d7ed;L0|#0edcdf166-e8de-404a-8b27-16b2f769d7ed|Swiss Water Decaffeniated Coffee Company Ltd;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA1096GP0|#31a206cb-92b0-4223-8305-c75b779a52a8;L0|#031a206cb-92b0-4223-8305-c75b779a52a8|Delta;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3a Coffee Decaffeination OperationPermitNewApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClass318EA7CBA5DA43C49B3B6E20E9636569"><p>​Swiss Water Decaffeinated Coffee Company Inc. has applied for a new permit to discharge air contaminants from a coffee decaffeination processing facility located at 7750 Beedie Way, Delta, BC   V4G 0A5.</p></div>,
GP0|#74b5a23a-f66e-4a72-a3bd-ae72910822e3;L0|#074b5a23a-f66e-4a72-a3bd-ae72910822e3|Vancouver Drydock Company Limited Partnership;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3|#74b5a23a-f66e-4a72-a3bd-ae72910822e3;L0|#074b5a23a-f66e-4a72-a3bd-ae72910822e3|Vancouver Drydock Company Limited Partnership;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA1087GP0|#fd59b7d7-2f7d-471f-b458-37ee7d047c95;L0|#0fd59b7d7-2f7d-471f-b458-37ee7d047c95|North Vancouver City;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3a dry dock facility with the primary business of vessel conversion, repair, maintenance and dry docking servicesPermitNewApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClass443D7F2CE66E46D4A4A54F38CE0BE37F"><p>The purpose of this application is to request authorization to discharge air contaminants from a dry dock with the primary business of vessel conversion, repair, maintenance and dry docking services. </p><p>Emission sources include: Two floating dry docks with surface preparation and painting operations; one hut for surface preparation of small items; and one shed to crush used paint cans for recycling.</p></div>, Vancouver Drydock Air Permit
GP0|#7b1ab0c9-723d-4260-be75-7d674dc0590d;L0|#07b1ab0c9-723d-4260-be75-7d674dc0590d|Wärtsilä Canada Inc;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3ärtsilä-canada-inc/GVA1082GP0|#7b1ab0c9-723d-4260-be75-7d674dc0590d;L0|#07b1ab0c9-723d-4260-be75-7d674dc0590d|Wärtsilä Canada Inc;GTSet|#7f4c7514-53d6-4014-b89c-b4df990b3ae3GVA1082GP0|#3061c011-cc7e-47aa-8d5a-2d93795f2d7e;L0|#03061c011-cc7e-47aa-8d5a-2d93795f2d7e|Richmond;GTSet|#53279cbe-e6bf-4ccb-a100-a874de0381d3Machine and Chrome PlatingPermitNewApplication Under Review<div class="ExternalClassCD41BE8D38E84C18AEF0DD5FA5D85F2A"><p>​Wärtsilä Canada, Incorporated provides a suite of mechanical services to the marine, power plant and hydro industry.  Wärtsilä Canada, Incorporated is seeking a permit for emissions from their Richmond facility.  Potential emission sources from Wärtsilä's Richmond facility are:  combustion emissions from natural gas heaters and process emissions from facility vents.  Potential air species include particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), lead (Pb) and hexavalent chromium (Cr<sup>6+</sup>).</p></div>